三泰虎

42%的人生活在貧民窟,新冠疫情將孟買籠罩在陰影下

 With 42% living in slums, virus casts long shadow across Mumbai

42%的人生活在貧民窟,新冠疫情將孟買籠罩在陰影下

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MUMBAI: In 1898, colonial authorities created the Bombay Improvement Trust on the heels of a devastating plague to upgrade living conditions in the city. The trust opened up congested neighbourhoods, built housing for workers, and laid down strict rules for ventilation and sanitation. Their measures shaped modern Bombay.

孟買:1898年,在一場毀滅性的瘟疫之后,英國殖民當局成立了孟買改善信托基金,以改善孟買人的生活條件。該信托基金建立了擁擠的社區,為工人建造住房,并制定了嚴格的通風和衛生規則,此舉塑造了現代孟買。

Amidst a new pandemic, it’s clear the lessons of the last have been long forgotten. The coronavirus that entered the city largely through its elite is now a threat to its most vulnerable, many of whom live in conditions not too distant from those of the 1890s.

在一場新的大流行中,過去的教訓顯然早已被遺忘。新冠病毒主要通過精英階層傳入孟買,現在對孟買最脆弱的人群構成了威脅,其中很多人的生活條件與19世紀90年代的生活條件差不多。

Recent data shows the wards with the most cases are mostly those with the largest slum populations (Dharavi, Kurla, Govandi) or highest population densities (Byculla, Worli). Meanwhile the outbreak is beginning to slow down in some affluent areas that saw the first cases —like parts of D ward — as the middle-class have sealed themselves into apartments and gated communities.

最近的數據顯示,病例最多的病房大多在人口最多的貧民窟(達拉維、庫爾拉、戈萬迪)或人口密度最高的地區(拜庫拉、沃里)。與此同時,隨著中產階級將自己禁足在公寓和封閉社區中,一些富人區的疫情開始減緩,第一批病例就是在這些地區出現的。

The spillover from highrises to slums isn’t surprising—42% of Mumbaikars live in slums, as per the 2011 census. When other low-income housing are included, up to 57% families live in one-room homes where physical distancing is impossible. Public housing, sanitation, and health infrastructure for the poor has been largely stagnant in the past few decades. Despite high-profile programs, there is a 1lakh shortfall in community toilets and an estimated 11lakh shortfall in affordable homes.

從高樓到貧民窟的溢出效應并不令人驚訝——根據2011年的人口普查,42%的孟買人住在貧民窟。如果算上其他廉價住房,多達57%的家庭住一居室,這樣不可能保持社交距離。過去幾十年,為窮人建設的公共住房、衛生設施和衛生基礎設施基本停滯不前。盡管有一些備受矚目的項目,但社區廁所仍存在10萬的缺口,經濟適用房也存在110萬套的缺口。

The neglect reflects in the delayed measures in poorer areas. “Migrant workers and slum-dwellers have been an afterthought,” says Arun Kumar, CEO of Apnalaya, an NGO that works in slums.

這種忽視反映在貧困地區的措施滯后上。在貧民窟工作的非政府組織Apnalaya的首席執行官Arun Kumar說:“民工和貧民窟居民已經被遺忘了。”

Dharavi is the hotspot of the epidemic but the decadesold settlement is relatively well-supported by NGOs and the municipality. By comparison, slums in the sprawling suburbs of Malad, Bhandup, and Govandi have fewer resources and get less attention. The M/East ward that includes Govandi, for instance, has close to 80% living in slums. The ward ranks bottom on the human development index and could be the next hotspot, says Amita Bhide of the Tata Institute of Social Sciences. (However, M/East assistant municipal commissioner S M Dwivedi said testing and facilities are expanding and fatality rates declining.) Slum cases may be limited to a degree by the exodus of poor migrants—an echo of the mass departures during the 1890s plague. Thousands have already left Govandi and Kurla for their distant villages, say local representatives. Still, many who remain are at risk. Near Mithi River in Kurla, people seek help only when they find it difficult to breathe, says local corporator Ashraf Azmi. “We take them to hospital, they are put on ventilators for a couple of days but they do not make it,” he said.

達拉維是疫情熱點地區,但這個已有幾十年歷史的定居點得到了非政府組織和市政當局的大力支持。相比之下,馬拉德、班杜普和戈萬迪郊區的貧民窟獲得的資源更少,得到的關注也更少。例如,包括戈萬迪在內的中/東區有近80%的人生活在貧民窟。塔塔社會科學研究所的Amita Bhide說,該區在人類發展指數上排名墊底,可能成為下一個熱點。(不過,中/東區助理市政專員S M Dwivedi說,正在擴大檢測范圍,死亡率正在下降。)

民工的離去可能會在一定程度上緩解貧民窟的形勢——19世紀90年代瘟疫期間,也有大量民工撤離。當地代表稱,成千上萬的人已經離開戈萬迪和庫爾拉,返回在遙遠村莊的家里。盡管如此,仍有許多人處于危險之中。當地企業負責人阿茲米說,在庫爾拉的米提河附近,人們只有在出現呼吸困難時才會尋求幫助。他說:“我們把他們送到醫院,讓他們戴上呼吸機,但還是沒救活。”

Apnalaya’s Kumar suggests more testing in areas with high populations or large slums. Azmi says there is no point increasing testing unless more beds are made available. “Where do I take them for treatment?” he asks.

非政府組織Apnalaya的庫馬爾建議在人口密集地區或大型貧民窟進行更多的檢測。阿茲米說,除非提供更多的床位,否則增加檢測也沒有意義。他問道“如果沒有床位,我帶他們去哪治療?””

以下是印度時報讀者的評論:譯者:Jessica.Wu

Sarang Nath

Vote Bank Politics by allowing illegal hutments This Zuggies are bound to act like Nuke Bomb for Mumbai.

批準非法搭建,充實自己的票倉。

這些貧民窟就像孟買的核彈。

 

Rabinder Nath Patney

No wonder Udhav Thackeray wants the lock down to continue.

難怪首席部長烏達夫·薩克雷想延長封城。

 

Raja Pillai

nothing will work unless we get rid of this shanties

除非拆了這些貧民窟,否則做什么都無濟于事。

 

kkm

No govt is willing to take action on slums as they are the votebanks of them

沒有一個政府愿意對貧民窟采取行動,貧民窟是他們的票倉啊。

 

S S Rajguru

The whole of Mumbai is almost a slum with pockets of rich habitats. But this covid has shown the mumbai its true place. Almost a hell hole.

整個孟買幾乎是一個貧民窟,但也有許多富人區。新冠疫情向我們展示了孟買的真實面貌,簡直是個地獄。

 

Mahesh Doddaiah

There should be a very dynamic and strict administration required to curb this pandemic. The current political leaders are miserably failed to tackle it.

應對這一流行病需要采取嚴格的管理措施。不幸的是,印度領導人未能做到啊。

 

Anthony Kalia

at present no middle class can afford to buy small house also in Mumbai city which goes to crores, and result slums and shanties

目前,沒有一個中產階級能買得起孟買的一套小房子,一套就要幾千萬盧比啊,貧民窟和棚戶區應運而生。

 

Nemar Naidoo

Since partition took place and Congress becoming govt of India, they should take full responsibility for the condition this country is in. For sixty-five odd yrs, they were in power simply ignored the state of the poor class. Only recently since the new govt took over, there's a ray of hope of upliftment in their lives. Never again let this happen.

國大黨執政的65年里,忽視了窮人階級的狀況。印度新政府上臺后,他們的生活才有了一絲希望。

 

arvind rai

Incompetent state govt and policies since independence have brought the city to it's knees.

自從獨立以來,無能的印度政府,失敗的政策已經讓這座城市屈服了。

 

rahul ahuja

This is right time to dismantle slums in Mumbai

現在正是拆除孟買貧民窟的好時機啊

 

Tanmay Chakrabarti

The greatest problem is that the state is running by a power-hungry man.

最大的問題是,這個邦是由一個渴望權力的人管理的。

 

vishal patel

it is time to control population of India. otherwise it will be too late.

是時候控制印度的人口了,否則為時晚矣。

 

Biju G

Mumbai is for all practical purposes one big slum

孟買實際上就是一個很大的貧民窟

thyjuki

Isn't it true for most of India?

印度大部分地區不都是嗎?

 

Biju G

No other city in India can match Mumbai either in the kind of wealth generated or squalor.

論財富,印度其他城市沒有孟買多;論臟臟程度,印度其他城市也不如孟買

 

Vilas Durge

Why focus on Mumbai. Shift business centres out of Mumbai to some other place and stop calling it Financial Capital from here on.

為什么關注孟買?

把商業中心從孟買遷到其他地方吧,從現在開始別再稱孟買為金融中心了。

 

Dutta Pawle

it is time to eliminate people living in slums. release poisonous gases in all the slums and multiple problems will be solved in one go.

印度是時候消滅住在貧民窟的人了,在貧民窟釋放毒氣,所有問題一次性解決。

I M Indian

hmm an animal like you can advise this...

你這樣的畜生才會提這樣的建議……

 

raja suri

provide them good housing facilities. Blame all earlier go nments of Maharashtra

為貧民窟居民提供更好的住所。要怪就怪馬哈拉施特拉邦早期的政府

 

Nitin

Trains & ST Should have restarted from At-Least 15th April..?? Many of them could have Gone Safely back to Home Towns.. May be Our Lock-Down was Too Early & Too Much Strict..?? That Also Created Dead-lock for Economy..??

鐵路客運應該至少從4月15日開始重啟。很多人本可以安全回到家鄉的。也許封城太早了,太嚴格了,造成了經濟停擺。

 

Dreet

What about slums in other Metropolitan cities? Don't just mention Mumbai as a scapegoat

那其他大都市的貧民窟呢?不要單單挑孟買說啊

 

Amit Padmayya

dude Mumbai has the most slums and dirtiest of all metro cities. FYI born in Mumbai so know how it has gone to the dogs

孟買的貧民窟最多,最臟。我出生在孟買,知道孟買是如何走向沒落的

 

Hemanshu Kothari

Dude Mumbai is worst affected due to poor management.

由于管理不善,孟買受到的影響最嚴重啊。

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